The Beowulf extract is from the beginning of the poem and describes the funeral rites of Scyld Sceafing (of the sheaf). The translation is almost literal. This description is interesting in its own right but also for the parallels with the Sutton Hoo ship burial.

The family of extant and extinct Indo-European languages is mapped with short notes and textual examples for most of them.

Substrate languages found in Europe and the Near east are discussed.